Tsinghua Science and Technology


  • Opportunities for Computational Techniques for Multi-Omics Integrated Personalized Medicine

    Yuan Zhang;Yue Cheng;Kebin Jia;Aidong Zhang;

    Personalized medicine is defined as "a model of healthcare that is predictive, personalized, preventive,and participator" and has very broad content. With the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, an explosive accumulation of biological information is collected from multiple layers of biological processes, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabonomics, and interactomics(omics). Implementing integrative analysis of these multiple omics data is the best way of deriving systematical and comprehensive views of living organisms, achieving better understanding of disease mechanisms, and finding operable personalized health treatments. With the help of computational methods, research in the field of biology and biomedicine has gained tremendous benefits over the past few decades. In the new era of personalized medicine, we will rely more on the assistance of computational analysis. In this paper, we briefly review the generation of multiple omics and their basic characteristics. And then the challenges and opportunities for computational analysis are discussed and some state-of-art analysis methods that were recently proposed by peers for integrative analysis of multiple omics data are reviewed. We foresee that further integrated omics data platform and computational tools would help to translate the biological knowledge to clinical usage and accelerate development of personalized medicine.

    2014年06期 v.19 545-558页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 300K]
    [下载次数:55 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:2 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • A New Hidden Markov Model for Protein Quality Assessment Using Compatibility Between Protein Sequence and Structure

    Zhiquan He;Wenji Ma;Jingfen Zhang;Dong Xu;

    Protein structure Quality Assessment(QA) is an essential component in protein structure prediction and analysis. The relationship between protein sequence and structure often serves as a basis for protein structure QA.In this work, we developed a new Hidden Markov Model(HMM) to assess the compatibility of protein sequence and structure for capturing their complex relationship. More specifically, the emission of the HMM consists of protein local structures in angular space, secondary structures, and sequence profiles. This model has two capabilities:(1) encoding local structure of each position by jointly considering sequence and structure information, and(2)assigning a global score to estimate the overall quality of a predicted structure, as well as local scores to assess the quality of specific regions of a structure, which provides useful guidance for targeted structure refinement. We compared the HMM model to state-of-art single structure quality assessment methods OPUSCA, DFIRE, GOAP,and RW in protein structure selection. Computational results showed our new score HMM.Z can achieve better overall selection performance on the benchmark datasets.

    2014年06期 v.19 559-567页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 684K]
    [下载次数:26 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • Structure-Based Prediction of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Jun-tao Guo;Shane Lofgren;Alvin Farrel;

    Transcription Factors(TFs) are a very diverse family of DNA-binding proteins that play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression through binding to specific DNA sequences. They are considered as one of the prime drug targets since mutations and aberrant TF-DNA interactions are implicated in many diseases.Identification of TF-binding sites on a genomic scale represents a critical step in delineating transcription regulatory networks and remains a major goal in genomic annotations. Recent development of experimental high-throughput technologies has provided valuable information about TF-binding sites at genome scale under various physiological and developmental conditions. Computational approaches can provide a cost-effective alternative and complement the experimental methods by using the vast quantities of available sequence or structural information. In this review we focus on structure-based prediction of transcription factor binding sites. In addition to its potential in genomescale predictions, structure-based approaches can help us better understand the TF-DNA interaction mechanisms and the evolution of transcription factors and their target binding sites. The success of structure-based methods also bears a translational impact on targeted drug design in medicine and biotechnology.

    2014年06期 v.19 568-577页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 526K]
    [下载次数:34 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • A Survey of MRI-Based Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods

    Jin Liu;Min Li;Jianxin Wang;Fangxiang Wu;Tianming Liu;Yi Pan;

    Brain tumor segmentation aims to separate the different tumor tissues such as active cells, necrotic core,and edema from normal brain tissues of White Matter(WM), Gray Matter(GM), and Cerebrospinal Fluid(CSF). MRIbased brain tumor segmentation studies are attracting more and more attention in recent years due to non-invasive imaging and good soft tissue contrast of Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) images. With the development of almost two decades, the innovative approaches applying computer-aided techniques for segmenting brain tumor are becoming more and more mature and coming closer to routine clinical applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview for MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. Firstly, a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging modalities of brain tumors is given. Then, the preprocessing operations and the state of the art methods of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation are introduced. Moreover, the evaluation and validation of the results of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation are discussed. Finally, an objective assessment is presented and future developments and trends are addressed for MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods.

    2014年06期 v.19 578-595页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 438K]
    [下载次数:156 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:40 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • Genome-Wide Interaction-Based Association of Human Diseases—A Survey

    Xuan Guo;Ning Yu;Feng Gu;Xiaojun Ding;Jianxin Wang;Yi Pan;

    Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWASs) aim to identify genetic variants that are associated with disease by assaying and analyzing hundreds of thousands of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms(SNPs). Although traditional single-locus statistical approaches have been standardized and led to many interesting findings, a substantial number of recent GWASs indicate that for most disorders, the individual SNPs explain only a small fraction of the genetic causes. Consequently, exploring multi-SNPs interactions in the hope of discovering more significant associations has attracted more attentions. Due to the huge search space for complicated multilocus interactions, many fast and effective methods have recently been proposed for detecting disease-associated epistatic interactions using GWAS data. In this paper, we provide a critical review and comparison of eight popular methods, i.e., BOOST, TEAM, epi Forest, EDCF, SNPHarvester, epi MODE, MECPM, and MIC, which are used for detecting gene-gene interactions among genetic loci. In views of the assumption model on the data and searching strategies, we divide the methods into seven categories. Moreover, the evaluation methodologies,including detecting powers, disease models for simulation, resources of real GWAS data, and the control of false discover rate, are elaborated as references for new approach developers. At the end of the paper, we summarize the methods and discuss the future directions in genome-wide association studies for detecting epistatic interactions.

    2014年06期 v.19 596-616页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 432K]
    [下载次数:43 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:4 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network

    Hui Li;Chunmei Liu;Mugizi Robert Rwebangira;Legand Burge;

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized na¨?ve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict monoisotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to public Mo dataset demonstrates that our na¨?ve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity.

    2014年06期 v.19 617-623页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 443K]
    [下载次数:26 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:2 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • Methods for Population-Based eQTL Analysis in Human Genetics

    Lu Tian;Andrew Quitadamo;Frederick Lin;Xinghua Shi;

    Gene expression is a critical process in biological system that is influenced and modulated by many factors including genetic variation. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci(e QTL) analysis provides a powerful way to understand how genetic variants affect gene expression. For genome wide e QTL analysis, the number of genetic variants and that of genes are large and thus the search space is tremendous. Therefore, e QTL analysis brings about computational and statistical challenges. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in methods for e QTL analysis in population-based studies. We first present traditional pairwise association methods, which are widely used in human genetics. To account for expression heterogeneity, we investigate the methods for correcting confounding factors. Next, we discuss newly developed statistical learning methods including Lasso-based models. In the conclusion, we provide an overview of future method development in analyzing e QTL associations. Although we focus on human genetics in this review, the methods are applicable to many other organisms.

    2014年06期 v.19 624-634页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 368K]
    [下载次数:86 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • Hierarchically Clustered HMM for Protein Sequence Motif Extraction with Variable Length

    Cody Hudson;Bernard Chen;Dongsheng Che;

    Protein sequence motifs extraction is an important field of bioinformatics since its relevance to the structural analysis. Two major problems are related to this field:(1) searching the motifs within the same protein family; and(2) assuming a window size for the motifs search. This work proposes the Hierarchically Clustered Hidden Markov Model(HC-HMM) approach, which represents the behavior and structure of proteins in terms of a Hidden Markov Model chain and hierarchically clusters each chain by minimizing distance between two given chains' structure and behavior. It is well known that HMM can be utilized for clustering, however, methods for clustering on Hidden Markov Models themselves are rarely studied. In this paper, we developed a hierarchical clustering based algorithm for HMMs to discover protein sequence motifs that transcend family boundaries with no assumption on the length of the motif. This paper carefully examines the effectiveness of this approach for motif extraction on 2593 proteins that share no more than 25% sequence identity. Many interesting motifs are generated.Three example motifs generated by the HC-HMM approach are analyzed and visualized with their tertiary structure.We believe the proposed method provides a unique protein sequence motif extraction strategy. The related data mining fields using Hidden Markova Model may also benefit from this clustering on HMM themselves approach.

    2014年06期 v.19 635-647页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 825K]
    [下载次数:34 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:3 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • A Hybrid Mathematical Model of Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis with Blood Perfusion

    Junping Meng;Shoubin Dong;Liqun Tang;Yi Jiang;

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessel from existing ones, is a pivotal stage in cancer development,and is an important target for cancer therapy. We develop a hybrid mathematical model to understand the mechanisms behind tumor-induced angiogenesis. This model describes uptake of Tumor Angiogenic Factor(TAF)at extracellular level, uses partial differential equation to describe the evolution of endothelial cell density including TAF induced proliferation, chemotaxis to TAF, and haptotaxis to extracellular matrix. In addition we also consider the phenomenon of blood perfusion in the micro-vessels. The model produces sprout formation with realistic morphological and dynamical features, including the so-called brush border effect, the dendritic branching and fusing of the capillary sprouts forming a vessel network. The model also demonstrates the effects of individual mechanisms in tumor angiogenesis: Chemotaxis to TAF is the key driving mechanisms for the extension of sprout cell; endothelial proliferation is not absolutely necessary for sprout extension; haptotaxis to Extra Cellular Matrix(ECM) gradient provides additional guidance to sprout extension, suggesting potential targets for anti-angiogenic therapies.

    2014年06期 v.19 648-657页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 678K]
    [下载次数:35 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:5 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • PBNA: An Improved Probabilistic Biological Network Alignment Method

    Muwei Zhao;Wei Zhong;Jieyue He;

    Biological network alignment is an important research topic in the field of bioinformatics. Nowadays almost every existing alignment method is designed to solve the deterministic biological network alignment problem.However, it is worth noting that interactions in biological networks, like many other processes in the biological realm,are probabilistic events. Therefore, more accurate and better results can be obtained if biological networks are characterized by probabilistic graphs. This probabilistic information, however, increases difficulties in analyzing networks and only few methods can handle the probabilistic information. Therefore, in this paper, an improved Probabilistic Biological Network Alignment(PBNA) is proposed. Based on Iso Rank, PBNA is able to use the probabilistic information. Furthermore, PBNA takes advantages of Contributor and Probability Generating Function(PGF) to improve the accuracy of node similarity value and reduce the computational complexity of random variables in similarity matrix. Experimental results on dataset of the Protein-Protein Interaction(PPI) networks provided by Todor demonstrate that PBNA can produce some alignment results that ignored by the deterministic methods, and produce more biologically meaningful alignment results than Iso Rank does in most of the cases based on the Gene Ontology Consistency(GOC) measure. Compared with Prob method, which is designed exactly to solve the probabilistic alignment problem, PBNA can obtain more biologically meaningful mappings in less time.

    2014年06期 v.19 658-667页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 333K]
    [下载次数:30 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]

  • Call for Papers Special Issue on Cyber-Physical Systems

    <正>The publication of Tsinghua Science and Technology was started in 1996.Since then,it has been an international academic journal sponsored by Tsinghua University and published bimonthly.This journal aims at presenting the state-of-art scientific achievements in computer science and other IT fields.The last decade has seen a rapid growth in research and initial deployment of Cyber-Physical Systems(CPS),complex engineered systems whose functions are dependent upon tight integration of the underlying physical,computation,and communication processes.Advances in CPS technology will drive innovation in important sectors such as transportation,energy,city/building design,agriculture,healthcare,and manufacturing.Example CPS

    2014年06期 v.19 668页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 53K]
    [下载次数:27 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • TOTAL CONTENTS Tsinghua Science and Technology, Vol. 19,2014


    2014年06期 v.19 669-672页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 1080K]
    [下载次数:11 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
  • Information for Contributors

    <正>Tsinghua Science and Technology(Tsinghua Sci Tcchnol),an academic journal sponsored by Tsinghua University,is published bimonthly.This journal aims at presenting the up-to-date scieniillc achievements with high creativity and great signillcancc in computer and electronic engineering.C'onlri but ions ail over the world are welcome.Tsiitgliua Sci Techno!is indexed by IEEE Xplore,Engineering index(Ei,USA).INSPEC,SA.Cambridge Abstract and oilier abstracting indexes.

    2014年06期 v.19 673页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 547K]
    [下载次数:14 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:0 ]
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